Sustainable desalination with the implementation of forward osmosis
The use of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination to produce potable water from seawater is growing due to urgent global water shortages. Forward osmosis (FO) has been proposed as a pre-treatment in desalination to dilute seawater entering the RO step and recover clean water from wastewater potentially reducing energy requirements and membrane fouling. However, fouling cannot be totally avoided. The aim of this study is to investigate the various factors affecting fouling and its reversibility in FO to optimise process performance.